All You Need To Know About Turkey's Geography, Population and More!

By Hana Emily
Posted on May 27, 2024 7:46 AM

Situated in the Eurasia area, Turkey is a beautiful land that possesses plenty of blue beaches and attractive sceneries. In the past few years, there have been more and more tourists spending their holidays in this nation to release stress as well as enjoy the beauty of nature. Moreover, famous historical places, geography, population and tasty cuisine in Turkey also leave unforgettable memories in travelers once they set foot in this country. If you are planning a trip to Turkey but do not know much about it, do not hesitate to scroll down for useful details!

Before coming to explore Turkey's history and tourism. If you are a foreign citizen, you must apply for a Turkey E-Visa online and learn about the requirements for citizens of other country's visas to Turkey.

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Turkey is a nation sharing the border with eight other countries that are Bulgaria, Gruzia, Armenia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Azerbaijan. Lying between the Asian and European continents, Turkey has an important strategic position that helped it win against foreign enemies in most of the battles.

Geography of Turkey

Although belonging to two landmasses, 97% of Turkey lies on the Asian continent. It is separated from the rest 3% of the European continent by Bosphorus, Marmara and Dardanelles straits. Turkey spreads 1.600 kilometers in length and more than 800 kilometers in width, which forms this nation into a shape of a rectangle.
The total area of this country is 783.562 km² including its lakes. That big number helps Turkey to stay in the 37th line on the list in comparison with the scale of other nations. Surrounding Turkey is three famous seas known as Aegea in the West, the Black Sea in the North and the Mediterranean in the South. Moreover, there is Marmara beach lying in the West-North direction.

Beautiful beaches in turkey

The area located on the Asian continents consists of highlands and narrow coastal plains amid long mountain ranges. The East of the country is a mountainous region where Euphrates, Tigris and Aras rivers start from. The amazing terrain of Turkey nowadays is the result of earthquakes and volcanoes that occurred a long time ago. After hundreds of years, there have been a lot of changes that contribute to the beauty of the nation today.


Mountains in Turkey


Turkey has a diverse and vibrant population, making it an intriguing destination for tourists. According the latest statistics in 2023, Turkey had an estimated population of around 84 million people. The country's population is predominantly Turkish, with Turks constituting the largest ethnic group. However, Turkey is also home to various minority communities, including Kurds, Arabs, Armenians, Greeks, and others, all contributing to its rich cultural tapestry.

Turkey ethnic groups

The population of Turkey is predominantly Muslim, with Islam being the dominant religion. However, the country embraces a secular system, and visitors will find a mix of religious and secular practices throughout the country. It is worth noting that Turkey's society is relatively conservative in some regions, particularly in rural areas and smaller towns, while larger cities like Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir have a more cosmopolitan and diverse atmosphere.

Overall, Turkey's population reflects its historical and geographical position as a bridge between Europe and Asia, resulting in a fascinating blend of cultures, traditions, and languages.


Turkey had its first generation in the Stone age. After being defeated by Great Alexandros, this area experienced the Hellenization process until century XI when the Seljuk people turned a new page for their history. 

However, at the end of the XIII century, Ottoman people united Anatolia and joined many regions in Southeastern Europe, Southwest Asia and Northern Africa together. Within a short time, it became a strong empire in the pre-modern time. The dynasty reached its peak in the XV century and lasted for around two hundred years later. Then, it was beaten in the first world war due to wrong strategies, which resulted in failure and put an end to one of the most powerful empires at that time.

The collaspe of Ottaman Empire
The decline of Ottoman Empire after WW1

After the collapse of the Ottoman government, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk collaborated with some of his partners to plan a fight against foreign enemies. With a lot of time and effort, they finally succeeded in taking independence back for their nation. The Republic of Turkey was then proclaimed on 29 October 1923 and Atatürk became the first Turkish president.

Going through a long period of improvement and development, Turkey is now a member of the EU, EEC, UN, NATO, OECD, OSCE, OIC, G-20 and some other organizations. Those achievements are persuasive proofs showing how hard the Turkish government and its citizens have tried to catch up with the international pace. 


For a long time, Turkey has been famous for its variety of cultures. The establishment of the Ottoman empire in the VIII century along with traditions from ancient Europe has left valuable customs in modern society. 

In the first years of Republic time, the Turkish government invested a high amount of money in art fields such as sculpture and architecture. The purpose of this was to create a unique national identity for this country.

Turkish sculpture
Incredible beauty of Turkey

In addition, Turkish culture is also shown in their food and beverages. For example, sand coffee was honored as the world’s heritage for its specific recipe and flavors. Besides, there are also activities related to this popular drink such as fassomancy in which psychics forecast someone's future by seeing the images formed with the left coffee powder in the cup. Thanks to those special customs, Turkey has written its name on the list of hot destinations.

The official language used in Turkey is Turkish spoken by more than 70 million citizens all over the world. For that reason, it is the most popular language in the Turk system. According to some documents, Turkish was first used in communication by ancient people around 1200 years ago. However, to make it easier and reduce the number of loanwords, Atatürk did apply the Latin alphabet in his innovations to create the Turkish language that people are using today.

Turkish language

Turkey is not only a country for tourism that most visitors choose to enjoy their holidays but it is also the home of various cultures accumulated from the past to the modern time. With a lot of interesting things to learn, this land would be a good choice for tourists who want to exchange customs and get more understanding of history, geography, architecture, language in particular and Turkey in general. 

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