Turkey- overview about history, geography, population and more!
Situated in the Eurasia area, Turkey is a beautiful land that possesses plenty of blue beaches and attractive sceneries. In the past few years, there have been more and more tourists spending their holidays in this nation to release stress as well as enjoy the beauty of nature. Moreover, famous historical places and tasty cuisine in Turkey also leave unforgettable memories in travelers once they set their foot in this country. If you are planning a trip to Turkey but do not know much about it, do not hesitate to scroll down for useful details!
Turkey is a nation sharing the border with eight other countries that are Bulgaria, Gruzia, Armenia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Azerbaijan. Lying between the Asian and European continent, Turkey has an important strategic position which helped it win against foreign enemies in most of the battles.
Although belonging to two landmasses, 97% of Turkey lies on the Asian continent. It is separated from the rest 3% in the European continent by Bosphorus, Marmara and Dardanelles straits. Turkey spreads 1.600 kilometers in length and more than 800 kilometers in width, which forms this nation into a shape of a rectangle.
The total area of this country is 783.562 km² including its lakes. That big number helps Turkey to stay in the 37th line on the list in comparison with the scale of other nations. Surrounding Turkey are three famous seas known as Aegea in the West, Black Sea in the North and Mediterranean in the South. Moreover, there is Marmara beach lying in the West - North direction.
The area located on the Asian continents consists of highlands and narrow coastal plains amid long mountain ranges. The East of the country is a mountainous region where Euphrates, Tigris and Aras rivers start from. Amazing terrain of Turkey nowadays is the result of earthquakes and volcanoes that occurred a long time ago. After hundreds of years, there have been a lot of changes which contribute to the beauty of the nation today.
According to the latest survey in 2020, the number of citizens living in Turkey has reached 84.693.793, which means there are more than 909 newbies born in comparison with the same time in 2019. The changes may be affected by many elements as details:
- 1.300.038 newborns are given birth to
- 456.317 people die
- Natural population growth: 843.721
- Emigration: 65.739
Turkey had its first generation in the Stone age. After being defeated by Great Alexandros, this area experienced the Hellenization process until century XI when Seljuk people turned a new page for their history.
However, at the end of the XIII century, Ottoman people united Anatolia and joined many regions in Southeastern Europe, Southwest Asia and Northern Africa together. Within a short time, it became a strong empire in the pre-modern time. The dynasty reached its peak in the XV century and lasted for around two hundred years later. Then, it was beaten in the first world war due to wrong strategies, which resulted in failure and put an end to one of the most powerful empires at that time.
After the collapse of Ottoman government, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk collaborated with some of his partners to plan a fight against foreign enemies. With a lot of time and effort, they finally succeeded in taking independence back for their nation. The Republic of Turkey was then proclaimed on 29 October 1923 and Atatürk became the first Turkish president.
Going through a long period of improvement and development, Turkey is now a member of EU, EEC, UN, NATO, OECD, OSCE, OIC, G-20 and some other organizations. Those achievements are persuasive proofs showing how hard Turkish government and its citizens have tried to catch up with the international pace.
In Turkey, children must be sent to school when they reach the age of 7. Their schooling fees are totally free until they are fifteen years old. There are more than 820 educational institutes throughout the country comprising universities and colleges with the number of one million students. Especially, Istanbul and Ankara are the two places of 15 main universities where seniors can go for higher education.
There are two types of schools in Turkey which are public educational institutions and private ones. As for the former, they do not cost a lot of money while the latter requires high fees that can be over $20.000. Therefore, parents have to consider very carefully before making a decision for their children.
Turkey possesses a number of schools which meet international standards. Thanks to that, some of them are listed as one of the best schools in the world. However, there are also ones with normal criteria due to the lack of funds.
For a long time, Turkey has been famous for its variety in culture. The establishment of the Ottoman empire in the VIII century along with traditions from ancient Europe has left valuable customs in modern society.
In the first years of Republic time, the Turkish government invested a high amount of money in art fields such as sculpture and architecture. The purpose of this was to create a unique national identity for this country.
In addition, Turkish culture is also shown in their food and beverages. For example, sand coffee was honored as the world’s heritage for its specific recipe and flavors. Besides, there are also activities related to this popular drink such as fassomancy in which psychics forecast someone's future by seeing the images formed with the left coffee powder in the cup. Thanks to those special customs, Turkey has written its name on the list of hot destinations.
The official language used in Turkey is Turkish spoken by more than 70 million citizens all over the world. For that reason, it is the most popular language in the Turk system. According to some documents, Turkish was first used in communication by ancient people around 1200 years ago. However, to make it easier and reduce the number of loanwords, Atatürk did apply the Latin alphabet in his innovations to create the Turkish language that people are using today.
Turkey is not only a country for tourism that most visitors choose to enjoy their holidays but it is also the home of various cultures accumulated from the past to the modern time. With a lot of interesting things to learn, this land would be a good choice for tourists who want to exchange customs and get more understanding of history, geography, architecture, language in particular and Turkey in general.